Genetic Algorithms in AutoML: Enhancing Automated Machine Learning with Evolutionary Techniques Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) aims to simplify the process of building and optimizing machine learning models by automating the selection and configuration of algorithms. Genetic algorithms, inspired by the process of natural selection, have emerged as a promising technique to enhance AutoML systems, enabling them to efficiently search for optimal machine learning pipelines. Recent research has focused on incorporating genetic algorithms into AutoML frameworks to improve their performance and adaptability. For instance, Naive AutoML leverages meta-knowledge about machine learning problems to quickly find high-quality solutions, while SubStrat uses a genetic-based algorithm to find a representative data subset for faster AutoML execution. Resource-Aware AutoML (RA-AutoML) combines constraint-aware Bayesian Optimization and Genetic Algorithm to build models optimizing predefined objectives under resource constraints. In the context of multi-label classification, Auto-MEKA_GGP, a grammar-based genetic programming method, has shown promising results compared to other automated multi-label classification methods. Online AutoML (OAML) adapts to data drift by continuously optimizing online learning pipelines using asynchronous genetic programming. Furthermore, the General Automated Machine learning Assistant (GAMA) is a modular AutoML system that allows users to plug in different AutoML and post-processing techniques, including genetic algorithms. Practical applications of genetic algorithms in AutoML include: 1. Efficiently searching for optimal machine learning pipelines, reducing the time and effort required by data scientists. 2. Adapting to dynamic environments and data drift, ensuring that the models remain relevant and accurate over time. 3. Facilitating the comparison and benchmarking of different AutoML techniques, enabling users to make informed decisions about which approach to use. A company case study is that of RA-AutoML, which has demonstrated good accuracy on the CIFAR-10 dataset while adhering to resource constraints in the form of model size. This showcases the potential of genetic algorithms in AutoML to build efficient and accurate models under real-world constraints. In conclusion, genetic algorithms have proven to be a valuable addition to AutoML systems, enhancing their performance, adaptability, and efficiency. By incorporating evolutionary techniques, AutoML frameworks can better tackle complex machine learning problems and adapt to dynamic environments, ultimately benefiting a wide range of applications and industries.

# Geometric Deep Learning

## What is geometric deep learning?

Geometric Deep Learning (GDL) is an emerging field that combines geometry and deep learning to better understand and design neural network architectures. It focuses on the geometric structure of data and the underlying manifolds that represent it. By leveraging the inherent geometric properties of data, GDL can provide a more intuitive understanding of deep learning systems and guide the design of more efficient and accurate neural networks.

## What is a geometric model in machine learning?

A geometric model in machine learning is a mathematical representation that captures the geometric structure of data. These models often involve the use of manifolds, which are smooth surfaces that locally resemble Euclidean spaces. Geometric models can help in understanding the relationships between data points and provide a more intuitive way to analyze and process complex data.

## What maths is used in deep learning?

Deep learning relies on various mathematical concepts, including linear algebra, calculus, probability, and statistics. Linear algebra is essential for understanding and manipulating data in the form of vectors and matrices. Calculus, particularly multivariable calculus, is used to optimize neural network parameters and understand how changes in input affect the output. Probability and statistics are crucial for modeling uncertainty, evaluating model performance, and making predictions.

## What is the difference between Euclidean and non-Euclidean data?

Euclidean data refers to data that can be represented in a flat, Euclidean space, where the standard Euclidean distance metric applies. Examples include points in a two-dimensional plane or a three-dimensional space. Non-Euclidean data, on the other hand, cannot be represented in a flat space and requires a different distance metric. Examples of non-Euclidean data include data on graphs, networks, or manifolds. Geometric deep learning often deals with non-Euclidean data, as it focuses on the geometric structure of data and the underlying manifolds that represent it.

## How does geometric deep learning improve neural network performance?

By focusing on the geometric structure of data and leveraging the inherent geometric properties, geometric deep learning can guide the design of more efficient and accurate neural networks. This approach can lead to better generalization, improved interpretability, and more effective solutions for various artificial intelligence tasks, such as image recognition, molecular dynamics simulation, and structure-based drug design.

## What are some practical applications of geometric deep learning?

Practical applications of geometric deep learning include molecular property prediction, ligand binding site and pose prediction, and structure-based de novo molecular design. For example, one company case study involves the use of geometric graph representations and geometric graph convolutions for deep learning on three-dimensional (3D) graphs, such as molecular graphs. By incorporating geometry into deep learning, significant improvements were observed in the prediction of molecular properties compared to standard graph convolutions.

## What are some recent research directions in geometric deep learning?

Recent research in geometric deep learning has explored the geometrization of deep networks, the relationship between geometry and over-parameterized deep networks, and the application of geometric optimization techniques. For example, one study proposed a geometric understanding of deep learning by showing that the success of deep learning can be attributed to the manifold structure in data. Another study demonstrated that Message Passing Neural Networks (MPNNs) are insufficient for learning geometry from distance matrices and proposed a new model called $k$-DisGNNs to effectively exploit the rich geometry contained in the distance matrix.

## Geometric Deep Learning Further Reading

1.Geometrization of deep networks for the interpretability of deep learning systems http://arxiv.org/abs/1901.02354v2 Xiao Dong, Ling Zhou2.Structure-based drug design with geometric deep learning http://arxiv.org/abs/2210.11250v1 Clemens Isert, Kenneth Atz, Gisbert Schneider3.Understanding over-parameterized deep networks by geometrization http://arxiv.org/abs/1902.03793v1 Xiao Dong, Ling Zhou4.How deep learning works --The geometry of deep learning http://arxiv.org/abs/1710.10784v1 Xiao Dong, Jiasong Wu, Ling Zhou5.Demystifying Deep Learning: A Geometric Approach to Iterative Projections http://arxiv.org/abs/1803.08416v1 Ashkan Panahi, Hamid Krim, Liyi Dai6.Is Distance Matrix Enough for Geometric Deep Learning? http://arxiv.org/abs/2302.05743v3 Zian Li, Xiyuan Wang, Yinan Huang, Muhan Zhang7.Geometric Understanding of Deep Learning http://arxiv.org/abs/1805.10451v2 Na Lei, Zhongxuan Luo, Shing-Tung Yau, David Xianfeng Gu8.A Structural Approach to the Design of Domain Specific Neural Network Architectures http://arxiv.org/abs/2301.09381v1 Gerrit Nolte9.Geometric Graph Representations and Geometric Graph Convolutions for Deep Learning on Three-Dimensional (3D) Graphs http://arxiv.org/abs/2006.01785v1 Daniel T. Chang10.A Survey of Geometric Optimization for Deep Learning: From Euclidean Space to Riemannian Manifold http://arxiv.org/abs/2302.08210v1 Yanhong Fei, Xian Wei, Yingjie Liu, Zhengyu Li, Mingsong Chen## Explore More Machine Learning Terms & Concepts

Genetic Algorithms in AutoML GloVe GloVe: A powerful tool for word embeddings in natural language processing and machine learning applications. GloVe, or Global Vectors for Word Representation, is a popular method for creating word embeddings, which are vector representations of words that capture their meaning and relationships with other words. These embeddings have become essential in various machine learning and natural language processing tasks, such as recommender systems, word analogy, syntactic parsing, and more. The core idea behind GloVe is to leverage the co-occurrence statistics of words in a large text corpus to create meaningful vector representations. However, the initial formulation of GloVe had some theoretical limitations, such as the ad-hoc selection of the weighting function and its power exponent. Recent research has addressed these issues by incorporating extreme value analysis and tail inference, resulting in a more accurate and theoretically sound version of GloVe. Another challenge faced by GloVe is its inability to explicitly consider word order within contexts. To overcome this limitation, researchers have proposed methods to incorporate word order in GloVe embeddings, leading to improved performance in tasks like analogy completion and word similarity. GloVe has also found applications in various domains beyond text analysis. For instance, it has been used in the development of a music glove instrument that learns note sequences based on sensor inputs, enabling users to generate music by moving their hands. In another example, GloVe has been employed to detect the proper use of personal protective equipment, such as face masks and gloves, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent advancements in GloVe research have focused on addressing its limitations and expanding its applications. For example, researchers have developed methods to enrich consumer health vocabularies using GloVe embeddings and auxiliary lexical resources, making it easier for laypeople to understand medical terminology. Another study has explored the use of a custom-built smart glove to identify differences between three-dimensional shapes, demonstrating the potential for real-time object identification. In conclusion, GloVe has proven to be a powerful tool for creating word embeddings that capture the semantics and relationships between words. Its applications span across various domains, and ongoing research continues to improve its performance and expand its potential uses. By connecting GloVe to broader theories and addressing its limitations, researchers are paving the way for more accurate and versatile machine learning and natural language processing applications.